Trafficking organizations can vary from single individuals to complex networks. Much concern has focused on large-scale organized criminal gangs, but many trafficking networks are informal, local, and lack a criminal mastermind. Legal recruitment agencies or individuals and small- and medium-scale networks may be just as dangerous to potential victims as organized crime. Human trafficking is a complex phenomenon and different people play many roles in facilitating it. For example:
The list proposed by the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Trafficking is characterized by different recruitment methods which vary from country to country and have changed over time. As some victims are kidnapped, others are duped by fraudulent job offers. Recruitment through job advertisements and job agencies is often used but may be less common in some countries where awareness-raising strategies address this recruitment technique. Instead, recruitment strategies such as the “lover boy method”, female recruiters (often victims or former victims), recruitment by male/female couples, and/or acquaintances, among others, are employed. Victims of trafficking come to realize much too late the high-paying job will never materialize.